Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

ActiveX control
Microsoft Technology that makes the sharing of information between several applications easier. This technology is mainly used to develop interactive applications and the contents of Web sites. The ActiveX controls optimise the OLE technology which has been used for quite some time, by extending the object sharing domain, which was up until now limited to computers, to all the Internet network. The modular design of this technology enables programs which are intended to operate alone to be written, in "intelligent" objects incorporated in other Visual Basic programs or in Web pages, or even into standard OLE objets in documents.
AF (Audio Frequency)
For radio transmission, the functioning radio channel (voice or music), to be used for modulation of an RF carrier. In FM transmission, the bandwidth of a radio signal extends from 40Hz to 15 kHz.
AF - Alternative Frequencies list
The list(s) of alternative frequencies give information on the various transmitters broadcasting the same program in the same or adjacent reception areas, and enable and enable receivers to switch to a stronger signal and those equipped with a memory to store the list(s), to reduce the time for switching to another transmitter.
AM
Amplitude Modulation.
ANSI
The American National Standards Institute is an organisation, which specialises in establishing standards in the United States particularly in the computing and telecommunications fields.
Applet
Computer program written in Java language. Applets are identical to applications, with the difference that they do not operate alone. Moreover, they follow a set of conventions with which they can be executed in a Java compatible browser.
ARP
This is the acronym for Address Resolution Protocol, which allows a machine in the network to associate an IP address to a hardware address.
ARPAnet
ARPA is the acronym for Advanced Research Project Agency, for the minister of Defence in the United States. This is the source of the creation of computer networks over wide areas. The ARPAnet network was the forerunner of Internet.
ART
Autorité de Régulation des Télécommunications (French telecommunications regulator).

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B

Baud
Unit that expresses the number of modulations per second that can be assimilated at a given speed, it measures data transfer (same as bps: bit per second) usually used in modems.
BBS
Bulletin Board System: message and information server that can be accessed with a microcomputer equipped with a modem.
BLU
Single lateral band.

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C

CAN (Control Area Network)
"Industrial" communication bus not sensible to electromagnetic disturbance, vibrationsor temperature. Very often used for motor vehicles.
CE (standard)
Compulsory standard regarding devices sold in the European Community. The CE standard indicates that the supplier guarantees for the device all electrical safety andelectromagnetic compatibility.
CERN
Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics located in Geneva, Switzerland, where at the end of the 1980s a team of engineers, lead by Timothy Berners-Lee, created the World Wide Web technology.
CGI
Acronym for Common Gateway Interface, software which makes the communication between a Web server and programs running off this server easier; for example, programs which process interactive forms or which search for information in databases on the server, following a request from a user.
Client
Client programs giving access to network resources by processing the information on a server. For example, a browser is a client.
Cookie
File stored on the hard disk of a computer, used to identify the computer or the preferences of the user for a remote computer. "Cookies" are often used to identify the visitors of a Web site.
CT - Clock Time and date
Time and date codes should use Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and Modified Julian Day (MJD). If MJD = 0 the receiver should not be updated. The listener, however, will not use this information directly and the conversion to local time and date will be made in the receiver's circuitry. CT is used as time stamp by various RDS applications and thus it must be accurate.

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D

DARC
Digital data of radio channel, with a higher ratio than RDS.
Datagram
A datagram is a discrete packet of data which contains the addresses, and which is the basic transmission unit on an IP network. It can also be called a "packet".
Deviation
Value of the frequency gap of the wave carrier in presence of an LF signal, compared to the frequency of this wave carrier when there is no LF signal. (In France, deviation value cannot exceed 75kHz).
DI - Decoder Identification and dynamic PTY indicator
These bits indicate which possible operating modes are appropriate for use with the broadcast audio and to indicate if PTY codes are switched dynamically.
Distortion
Signal distortion during processing, transmission or return. There are different kinds of distortion: lineal, non-lineal, phase distortion, etc.
DLCI
DLCI means "Data Link Connection Identifier". It is used to identify a unique point to point virtual link via a Frame Relay network. DLCIs are normally assigned by the frame relay network provider.
DNS
Domain Name Service: Service which attributes the names of the sites / addresses on Internet according to a naming plan. In France, the national domain .fr is managed by the INRIA.
Domain
The part of an Internet symbolic address which identifies an organisation that is a member of the network and which specifies the level of this organisation in the Internet network.
Domain name
On Internet, the name of a computer or group of computers used to identify its electronic (and sometimes geographic) location for data transmission. The domain name generally contains the name of an organisation and is always followed by a suffix of two or three letters that designate the type of organisation or the country of the domain. For example, in the domain name Microsoft.com, Microsoft is the name of the organisation and com is the abbreviation of commercial. Therefore this is a commercial organisation.

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E

ECC - Extended Country Code
RDS uses its own country codes. The first most significant bits of the PI code carry the RDS country code. Their four bit coding structure only permits the definition of 15 different codes, 1 to F (hex). Since there are much more countries to be identified, some countries have to share the same code which does not permit unique identification. Hence there is the need to use the Extended Country Code. The ECC consists of eight bits.
EMC (ElectroMagnetic Compatibility)
Feature of a device that assures it works efficiently in its electromagnetic ambient. EMC requires the device not to cause disturbance signals, to be isolated from external disturbance and to be protected against electrostatic surges.
EON - Enhanced Other Networks information
This feature can be used to update the information stored in a receiver about program services other than the one received. Alternative frequencies, the PS name, Traffic program and TrafficAnnouncement identification as well as program Type and program Item Number information can be transmitted for each other service. The relation to the corresponding program is established by means of the relevant program Identification. Linkage information, consisting of four data elements, provides the means by which several program services may be treated by the receiver as a single service during times a common program is carried. Linkage information also provides a mechanism to signal an extended set of related services.
ESD (ElectroStatic Discharge)
Electrostatic discharge that can reach 4000 Volts. Non- protected electrical components will be damaged, if compulsory ANTI-ESD cautions, during maintenance or card repair are not respected (bracelet, binding and antistatic smock).
EWS - Emergency Warning System
The EWS feature is intended to provide for the coding of warning messages. These messages will be broadcast only in cases of emergency and will only be evaluated by special receivers.

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F

Firewall
Software designed to prohibit any unauthorised access into a computer network.
FM (Frequency Modulation)
Frequency carrier changes of the FM transmitter following changes from modulation AFsignal. Value of variation depends directly on signal modulation range.
FTP
Acronym of File Transfer Protocol, an Internet protocol which allows users to transfer files between computers.

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G

Gateway
System which allows the transfer of information between two networks.

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H

HF (High Frequency)
See RF.
HTML
Acronym of Hyper Text Mark-up Language. Standardised description language for Web pages. It specifies the formatting of documents using commands (tags, flags, labels) and is interpreted by the WWW clients such as Netscape, Mosaic or Internet Explorer. HTML pages are text documents (in ASCII format) which can be made with a text editor or an HTML editor. The principle is basic: the section of text to be formatted is surrounded with flags (tags or even labels); each flag is written between the characters < (less than) and > (greater than) and is interpreted as a command by the browser.
HTTP
Acronym of Hypertext Transfer Protocol, the basic protocol of the World Wide Web technology. HTTP represents a set of instructions for the software, which controls the transmission of the HTML documents on Internet.
Hyperfrequency
All frequencies over 1,2 GHz.

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I

I2C
The I2C bus enables connection between electrical components using two channels;data is transmitted in the first channel (SDA), and the clock data checking on the second one (SCL).
IETF
Internet Engineering Task Force. Committee which works on the standardisation of transfers on Internet.
IH - In House application
This refers to data to be decoded only by the operator. Some examples noted are identification of transmission origin, remote switching of networks and paging of staff. The applications of coding may be decided by each operator itself.
Internet
In its largest sense, an internet network is a large computer network made up of a certain number of smaller networks. Internet with a capital "I" refers to the physical network which makes up the Web and which has enabled the electronic mail to reach a world-wide level.
Intranet
Private network inside an organisation. The intranet networks often use the Internet protocols to deliver their contents. They are often protected from the Internet network by firewalls.
IP (Internet Protocol)
See TCP/IP
IP address
Internet protocol address of a computer connected to Internet, normally represented by 4 numbers separated with decimal points, for example 128.121.4.5
IRAC (standard)
International Radiocommunications Advisory Committee.
ISDN (RNIS)
Acronym of Integrated services digital network, a network that acts as a digital connection service for the telephone and communication devices. An ISDN connection can procure an Internet access at a relatively high speed (up to 128.000 bits per second).
ISP
Acronym of Internet service provider, an Internet access provider for companies and private individuals, via ISP servers.

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J

Java
Object orientated programming language developed by Sun Microsystems, designed for the creation of applets or programs which can be applied to Web documents. It is possible to insert an applet in an HTML page, in the same way as an image. You display a page containing a Java applet using a browser, which handles the Java language. The applet code is then transferred to your system and executed by the browser.

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K

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L

LAN
Acronym of Local Area Network, a network that connects two or more computers in a relatively limited area, often within an organisation, to exchange and share files.
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)
Liquid Crystal Display technology offers diversified solutions for most apllications, suchas low consumption, excellent readability and long-lasting. In essence, it is anelectrically reactive substance between two electrodes which darkens or brightens inresponse to power supplied to electrodes.
LF (Low Frequency)
Signals used for modulation of an RF carrier. MPX is an LF signal composed of other LF signals.

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M

M/S - Music/Speech switch
This is a two-state signal to provide information on whether music or speech is the primary broadcast. The signal would permit receivers to be equipped with two separate volume controls, one for music and one for speech, so that the listener could adjust the balance between them to suit his individual listening habits.
MAC address
This is the hardware address in the case of Ethernet networks.
MIME
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. Designates a set of extensions for the routing of electronic mail allowing elements other than text - such as graphics, sounds or faxes.
Modem
Acronym of modulator/demodulator, hardware that connects a computer to other computers or to Internet, via a standard or ISDN telephone line (see below). A modem can be internal, integrated in a computer, or external. An external modem is a unit that connects the computer to a telephone line. The various modems are distinguished by their data transmission speed, expressed in baud (see above). The standard modems operate at 56.000 baud.
MOS-FET (Metal Oxide Separation-Field Effect Transistor)
Technology used in RF power transistors.
MPX (Multiplex - Modulation)
Different low-frequency components that modulate RF carrier. Multiplex extends on a100kHz bandwidth. Content changes depending on transmission mode and relateddata to transmit. Consists of at least audio data (left channel in monaural, or both leftand right channels in stereophonic), normally RDS, and sometimes DARC.
MSS
The Maximum Segment Size (MSS) is the largest quantity of data that can be transmitted at a time. If you want to avoid fragmentation, MSS must be equal to the MTU-IP header. MSS does not need to be set on IP2 equipment.
MTU
The Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) is a parameter that determines the longest datagramme that can be transmitted by an IP interface without needing to be split into smaller units. The MTU must be larger than the largest datagramme that you want to transmit without being split up.

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N

NCSA
Acronym for the National Centre for Supercomputing Applications, advanced research centre in Illinois University in Urban-Champaign, where the scientists and engineers have developed the largest part of the technology on which the World Wide Web is based. Mosaic, the first browser capable of displaying graphics, was developed by the NCSA.
News
Messages that supply the discussion groups of the Usenet network.
Newsgroup
Discussion group which is part of the Usenet network and which treats a particular subject.
NIC
Network Information Centre: service responsible for the authority and management of naming plans. A NIC service exists for every country in the world which works in co-ordination. In France, the management of the naming plan .fr is done by INRIA by delegation from the NIC.
NNTP
Network News Transfer Protocol. Protocol used to transfer the news on Internet. See news, newsgroup, usenet.

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O

ODA - Open Data Applications
The Open Data Applications feature allows data applications, not previously specified in EN 50067, to be conveyed in a number of allocated groups in an RDS transmission. The groups allocated are indicated by the use of type 3A group which is used to identify to a receiver the data application in use in accordance with the registration details.

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P

PCB (Printed Circuit Board)
Printed circuit that enables electronic components assembly. PCB can be single faced, double faced or multilayer, made of epoxy glass (FR4), teflon (PTFE) or composite, with metal holes.
PDF (Portable Document Format)
Document format created by Adobe that enables reading and printing a document onany platform, using Acrobat Reader.
PI - program Identification
This information consists of a code enabling the receiver to distinguish between countries, areas in which the same program is transmitted, and the identification of the program itself. The code is not intended for direct display and is assigned to each individual radio program, to enable it to be distinguished from all other programs. In the US this code acts as a set of digital call letters, each unique in the nation.
PIN - program Item Number
The code should enable receivers and recorders designed to make use of this feature to respond to the particular program item(s) that the user has preselected. Use is made of the scheduled program time, to which is added the day of the month in order to avoid ambiguity.
PLCC (Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier)
CMS integrated circuit case with J-clips on four sides. Some circuits are located on asocket, to be easily removed using specific PLCC extraction pliers.
PLL (Phase Locked Loop)
The Phase Locked Loop is the part of an oscillator set used to supply a given carrier frequency, that could be modified (ex: between 87,5 and 108 MHz). Made from a stable frequency reference.
POP
Post Office Protocol. Protocol used for the recovery of electronic mail stored on a server by means of client software.
PPP
Acronym of Point-to-Point Protocol, a connection configuration of computers via a telephone line or a network link acting as a telephone line.
Pre-emphasis
Its purpose is to increase the high frequency range, in order to maintain the corresponding signal over noise. Pre-emphasis is usually expressed using a time constant. When received, a de-emphasis cell performs the reversed operation to recover the original range of the signal.
PS - program Service name
This is the label of the program service consisting of not more than eight alphanumeric characters which is displayed by RDS receivers in order to inform the listener what program service is being broadcast by the station to which the receiver is tuned. An example for a name is "Radio 21". The program Service name is not intended to be used for automatic search tuning and must not be used for giving sequential information.
PTY - program TYpe
This is an identification number to be transmitted with each program item and which is intended to specify the current program Type within 31 possibilities. This code could be used for search tuning. The code will, moreover, enable suitable receivers and recorders to be pre-set to respond only to program items of the desired type. The last number, i.e. 31, is reserved for an alarm identification which is intended to switch on the audio signal when a receiver is operated in a waiting reception mode.
PTYN - program TYpe Name
The PTYN feature is used to further describe current PTY. PTYN permits the display of a more specific PTY description that the broadcaster can freely decide (eg PTY=4: Sport and PTYN: Football). The PTYN is not intended to change the default eight characters of PTY which will be used during search or wait modes, but only to show in detail the program type once tuned to a program. If the broadcaster is satisfied with a default PTY name, it is not necessary to use additional data capacity for PTYN. The program Type Name is not intended to be used for automatic PTY selection and must not be used for giving sequential information.

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Q

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R

RAM (Random Access Memory)
RAM is used for temporary data storage, during the time the microprocessor processesinformation.
RC/RM (Remote control / Remote monitoring)
Feature included in our RC/RM extension cards, enabling device monitoring and information regarding alarms and operation mode.
RDS (Radio Data System)
Digital data associated with a radio channel. Most of FM transmitted radio channels, use this data that enables radio identification and automatic change during movement.
RF (Radio Frequency)
Wave carrier modulated by an AF signal (in FM, this AF signal is usually a Multiplexsignal).
ROM (Read Only Memory)
ROM is a storing circuit that contains the software. (ROM cannot be overwritten).
RP - Radio Paging
The RP feature is intended to provide radio paging using the existing VHF/FM broadcasts as a transport mechanism, thereby avoiding the need for a dedicated network of transmitters. Subscribers to a paging service will require a special pocket paging receiver in which the subscriber address code is stored.
RS-232 (Recommended Standard 232)
Third version (RS-232-C), of the serial port transmission standard in computers.
RT - RadioText
This refers to text transmissions coded in accordance with annex E, primarily addressed to consumer home receivers, which would be equipped with suitable display facilities.

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S

Server
Computer, or its software, which "serves" other computers on a network by managing the files and the operation of the network. The computers "served" by a server integrate client software (see above). The Microsoft Internet Explorer browser is an example of client software.
SMTP
Acronym of Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Protocol used to send and transfer electronic mail.
SNMP
Acronym of Simple Network Management Protocol. Protocol used to read and set standard and manufacturer variables in network equipment. An SNMP agent is also capable of generating a "TRAP" (message) to an SNMP manager to send back information related to one or more variables for which thresholds have been associated.

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T

TA - Traffic announcement identification
This is an on/off switching signal to indicate when a traffic announcement is on air. The signal could be used in receivers to:
  1. 1. switch automatically from any audio mode to the traffic announcement
  1. 2. switch on the traffic announcement automatically when the receiver is in a waiting reception mode and the audio signal is muted
  1. 3. switch from a program to another one carrying a traffic announcement, according to possibilities available through EON.
After the end of the traffic announcement the initial operating mode will be restored.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)
These two protocols have been developed to enable computers to communicate on networks. IP performs data packages transference, TCP checks correct client/server communication. TCP/IP is the basis of the internet and is available on every common operating system.
TDC - Transparent Data Channels
The transparent data channels consist of 32 channels which may be used to send any type of data.
Telnet
Terminal emulation program which allows a user to connect to another computer, in particular a mainframe computer such as those on which catalogues of on-line libraries are installed. When a user connects to one of these catalogues of electronic libraries, via Telnet, he obtains access to the files containing the recordings.
Terminal emulation
Technique that allows the remote use of a central computer by making it think that the work is being done on a terminal which is locally connected to it. Telnet is the protocol defining the terminal emulation on Internet.
TFT (Thin-Film Transistor)
Technology applied to design LCD screens usually used on laptop computers. TFT screens are more bright and readable than LCD screens.
TMC - Traffic Message Channel
This feature is intended to be used for the coded transmission of traffic information. The coding is separately defined by a set of standards issued by CEN [ENV 12313-1 and prENV 12313-2].
TP - Traffic Program identification
This is a flag to indicate that the tuned program carries traffic announcements. The TP flag must only be set on programs which dynamically switch on the TA identification during traffic announcements. The signal shall be taken into account during automatic search tuning.

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U

UDP
Broadcasting of data in the form of streams, unicast, multicast.
URL
Acronym of Uniform Resource Locator, the address which specifies the electronic location of an Internet resource (a file). An URL address is generally made up of four parts: the protocol, the server (or domain), the path and the filename, although in certain cases, the path or the filename is not included.

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V

VCO
Voltage Controlled Oscillator.
VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)
Ratio between RF power (transmitter) really transmitted, and the non-transmitted power reflected to the transmitter. This reflected power must be as small as possible, to avoid transmitter damage. Too high VSWR usually causes a controlled decrease of the output RF power, launching a VSWR alarm.

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W

W3 Consortium
Industrial consortium managed by the Laboratory for Computer Science of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. W3 is the abbreviation of World Wide Web. This consortium favours the development of standards and encourages the inter-operation between the World Wide Web products. To begin with, based at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, where the World Wide Web technology was developed, the Consortium has not totally succeeded its venture which aimed to stimulate the co-operation concerning Web technologies amongst a certain number of private groups, often not very inclined to supply their secrets.
Whois
Program that can be used to interrogate directories in order to obtain information on a user.

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X

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Y

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Z

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